This study examined the raw and boiled seeds of thevetia Peruvian, the seeds were analysed for proximate composition, mineral content, while the oil extracted from the seeds were evaluated for physicochemical properties such as; specific gravity, iodine value, refractive index, peroxide value, saponification value, Unsaponification value and acid value using standard methods. The study was subjected to laboratory experiments such as oven dry method, micro kjeldahl method, use of soxhlet extractor, muffle furnace among others.The study revealed that the boiled moisture content (2.89±0.19%) of thevetia peruviana seed is significantly higher than the raw (2.00±0.00%) thevetia peruviana seed, the raw ash content of the seed (3.33±0.58%) is significantly higher than the boiled seed(2.96±0.01%), the raw crude protein of the seed (30.10±0.00%) is significantly higher than the boiled seed (29.6±0.00%), the boiled crude fibre of the seed (5.21±0.46%) is significantly higher than the raw seed (4.79±0.01%), the fat content of the boiled seed (59.20±0.00%) is significantly higher than the raw seed (58.30±0.00%), the carbohydrate by difference of the raw seed (1.80±0.00%) is significantly higher than the boiled seed (0.30±0.00%) at (p˂±0.05) level of significance.Mineral analysis (mg/l) of the thevetia peruviana also showed that phosphorus (11880.09) (12657.06) and potassium (22.08) (17.06) had high nutrient when compared with other elements for raw and boiled seed respectively. The physicochemical properties of the oil sample for both raw and boiled thevetia peruviana seed are of good quality for industrial applications.
M.T. Akintelu and A.I. Amoo
The study investigated the anti-microbial activities of the leaves of Senna occidentalis in the treatment of some bacteria diseases. 385.50g of Senna occidentalis leaves was plucked in an open field of Zebe, Ajara Agamathan in Badagry, Lagos State and was subjected to hydro-distillation by the use of Clevenger apparatus for 4hours. The volatile oil obtained was bottled and weighed with a percentage yield of 0.078%. The oil from the leaves were cultured (with some antibiotics used as control) Amoxillin, Cotrimoxazole, Ciprofloxacin Tetracycline, Gentamycin, Nitrofurantoin, Nalidixicin, Ofloxacin, Agumetin, Colistin on each nutrient agar (ASA) plates at 37 0C for 24 hours and were tested against some organisms such as: (Escherichia coli, Salmonella Sp., Bacillus Sp., Staphylococcus Sp., Klebsilia Sp). The study revealed that the essential oil extracted did not inhibit activity against all the organisms. This indicates that oil extracted from Senna occidentalis leaves cannot be used to control the microbes at the (0.2ml) concentraion used. Further investigation showed that two (Ciproflaxocin and Oflaxocin) of the entire antibiotics used as control inhibited the growth of the microbes. Thus, an infection caused by senna occidentalis can be cured by Ciproflaxocin and Oflaxocin antibiotics.
Mary Taiwo Akintelu
This study assessed the raw and boiled seeds of thevetia peruviana for amino acid contents, fatty acids composition and Phytochemical properties. The parameters of interest were determined using standard methods.The study revealed the main saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in raw and boiled thevetia peruviana seed. The unsaturated fatty acids are palmitoleic acid (C16:1), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3) and erucic acid (C22:1). Oleic acid is the most abundant unsaturated fatty acid followed by linoleic acid with values as follows, (54.75 % and 21.48 %) while for boiled (52.45 % and 18.95 %) respectively in each case. Myristic acid, Pamlitic acid, Stearic acid and Behenic acid are the saturated fatty acid. Also, the value of oleic acid (C18:1) reduced (52.45 %) due to the effect of boiling, while the saturated fatty of pamlitic acid (C16:0) increased (19.06 %) due to the effect of boiling. The study further revealed that all the essential amino acids required in human and animal diet were present in both raw and boiled seed of Thevetia peruviana. Glutamate acid has the most abundant in both raw and boiled sample (18.45 %) and (19.99 %) respectively while the lowest of all in raw is Cysteine (1.18 %) and in the boiled Histidine (1.25 %) which is as a result of boiling.The Phytochemical screening on the oil revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, and alkaloids. The boiling has little reduction on the characteristics of boiled thevetia peruviana seed.
M.T. Akintelu and I.A. Amoo
Water samples were collected for analysis from dug reservoirs in different residential areas of Ogwa communities in Edo state, Nigeria. Physico-chemical properties of these water samples were determined using standard analytical procedures. Samples were collected from five different sites and analyzed for following parameters such as color, odor, taste, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness and concentration of principal cations and anions such as Na+, K+,Mn2+, Fe2+, Cl-, SO42-, phosphate PO42- and nitrate NO3-. The results of the physico-chemical analysis were obtained in the following range pH (5.71- 6.14), temperature (31.1-31.9˚c), turbidity (0.12-0.37mg/l), conductivity (24.92-113.03µS/cm), odor (odorless), chloride (0.00 -41.34 mg/l), total dissolved solids (13.06- 40.45mg/l), total suspended solids (0.00-0.59mg/l), total hardness (2.6-7.8mg/l), Colour (1-2ptCO), Sulphate (12.5-194mg/l), Phosphate (0.004- 0.007mg/l) and Nitrate (0.23-2.15mg/l) .The concentrations of the metals can also be expressed in the following range; Na+ (2-20 mg/l), K+ (1-3 mg/l), Mn2+(2.5-9.34 mg/l), Fe2+(0.32-1.48mg/l). The data showed that there is variation in the investigated parameters and the highest value of physico-chemical parameters were obtained in Iyekeki. The concentrations of the investigated parameters of water samples conform to the permissible limits set by World Health Organization except that the pH values of the water samples were below the standards set by WHO/Nigeria standard of drinking water and the concentrations of manganese in the water samples exceed the standard set by World Health Organization.
Oladotun Bamiji Isola, Mary Taiwo Akintelu, Damilola Victoria Alli