The preponderance of terrorist groups or non state actors is becoming a very serious threat to the security of modern African states. The rationalization of these acts has therefore received the attention of scholars within and outside the academia. In international ethics for instance, ‘just war theory’ appears to be the most developed and widely used criterion for explaining the ‘rightness’ or otherwise of violence. Besides, there seem to be no universally accepted definition of terrorism. History shows that any form of violence could be legitimate and must not necessarily be the type organised by state actors alone. Therefore, it is the position of this paper that violence perpetrated by state and non state actors should be morally and legally justified without any form of discrimination. The actions of terrorist groups must be assessed on the same conditions used for state actors. The paper concludes that it is only when the above mentioned conditions are fully implemented and genuine democracy or democratization takes its full grip on the African continent that a reduction and a positive management of the activities of the so-called terrorist groups can be realised
Ngamen, Kouassi Cyrille, Metuonu, Iheanacho Chukwuemeka
It is very difficult if not impossible to come to term with a universally accepted definition of corruption.
Basically, however, it is admitted almost all over the world that corruption or corrupt behaviour involves the
violation of established rules for personal gain and profit. In other words corruption is an illegal exchange. The
main thrust of this paper therefore, is to demonstrate that the so-called “institutionalized corruption” in modern
Nigeria is the result of the loss of the Nigerian identity to the benefit of colonialism and imperialism. From
historical perspective, it is evident that pre-colonial Africans in general and Nigerians in particular, were honest,
humble and disciplined people with a high sense of love, justice and equity. This study made use of secondary
data that were subjected to internal appraisal. This paper posits that there is a strong correlation between
corruption and capitalism which appear to be the by-products of colonialism and imperialism in modern Africa.
The paper then recommends that if modern Nigerians genuinely and effectively desire to address the issue of
corruption there appears to be no other alternative than to go back to traditional or pre-colonial societal values of
Africa because a person’s personality and integrity are rooted in his or her culture.
Keywords: Corruption, Colonialism, Culture, Imperialism and Modern Nigeria.
Cyrille Ngamen Kouassi, PhD
Following Ferdinand Tönnies’ distinction between community and society which could be translated also into
the distinction between nation and state, it would be difficult if not impossible for modern African countries to
practise democracy as understood in Western countries. If at all there is democracy in Africa it must be peculiar
and unique. This is predicated on the fact that most African nations consider the state as something “alien” and
contrary to their societal values. The main thrust of this paper therefore, is to demonstrate that the modern
African state is the product of colonization and imperialism with capitalism as one of its direct consequences.
Nationhood, ethno-politics and tribalism are what actually characterize African public space. Consequently, it
foreshadows the basic tenets of Western-like democracy which is the respect for the universal human right.
Democracy as conceived by Western countries cannot thrive outside the ambit of the state and this is anthetical
to Africa’s societal values and politics.
Keywords: State, Nationhood, Ethno-politics, Democracy and Africa.
Cyrille Ngamen Kouassi, PhD